CAPCHAs are those odd little boxes that show some badly malformed letters and numbers and ask you to type them in. The idea is to check whether you are a human.
The problem is that CAPCHAs are pretty difficult for humans. And they’re fairly easy for computers. There are the simple work-arounds (like paying to break CAPCHAs on Mechanical Turk). And there are the high-tech solutions where you simply build a computer that can solve them. My biggest concern though is the new kind of CAPTCHA that people have begun using. I find it to be a real problem, and it, too, can be worked around by anyone who is sufficiently motivated, but it is becoming a disturbingly common new way of identifying real humans:
I wanted to pass on an excellent idea that I read from Martin Fowler‘s Blog. He calls it Immutable Servers, but I claim, if you think about it properly, it is merely the application of version control to systems administration.
Everyone understands just how much version control has transformed the development of software code. It enables developers make changes freely, rolling back changes if they need to. It enables them to look back in history and find out how things stood at any point in time, what was changed on a certain date, or when a given change was introduced. And with advanced usage, it allows “branching”, where one can experiment with a group of changes for a long time (while still working on the original branch as well) then merge them together later.
These features aren’t just for code. They are great for text documents that get edited frequently. They are a great idea for file systems. And system administrators are familiar with the idea of keeping all of their system administration scripts in a version control system. But some things are extremely difficult to put under version control. Databases are notoriously difficult to version (although Capital One 360 manages it). And servers, being pieces of physical hardware, are impossible to check into Git.
Except that they’re not. Servers are not pieces of physical hardware anymore… they were until the last decade, but in recent years that has changed. The vast majority of the servers in our data center either are run or can be run on virtual servers. The current buzzword is “cloud computing”, but whatever you call it, we have the technology to spin up and deploy servers from a template in a matter of minutes. (The fact that it takes weeks to get a server set up for your project has nothing to do with technical problems… that’s just our own failure to take full advantage of the technology that we own.)
So, given that the servers are probably running on a virtual machine anyway, it’s a good idea to keep a virtual machine template with the correct configuration (for quickly restoring the machine). Of course, if you do this you will need to update the template every time you make a significant configuration change. Updating the image doesn’t necessarily mean you launch a virtual machine each time, make the change, then save a new image — you can use tools like Puppet or Chef as part of the image deployment process so often it is just a matter of editing a configuration file.
For the final step, Martin Fowler proposes that you take this to its logical conclusion. If every change needs to be made on the real server AND on the template, why not simplify your workflow (and make it more reliable at the same time) by making the changes directly to the image and deploying a new copy each time. You never change the production server, just roll out a new one each time. This sounds crazy to anyone who hasn’t yet drunk the “cloud computing” cool-aid, to anyone for whom creating a new instance of a server takes more than a couple of minutes, but if you DO have an environment that flexible, then you might get all the benefits of version control but for servers. Netflix is one example of a major company that has taken this approach quite successfully.
Filed Under Technology
After looking at the iPhone 5, I see people saying that phones already have everything they need… nothing new will happen. That’s completely absurd. There are tons of little things, for instance I want a browser that can do everything the PC browsers can do. But there are also HUGE changes needed. Here are some things that I want for my phone:
- Talk to it. Today I *almost* have this: my Jellybean-based phone can perform near real-time voice recognition (without a network connection). But the error rate is still high enough that after adding in the time to go back and correct errors the whole process takes longer than typing it in on the device’s keyboard. But not much longer… I expect this one very soon.
- Context aware. My phone should know when it’s OK to ring, and when it isn’t (if I’m in a meeting or a movie). While I’m driving, it shouldn’t send me texts. When I start asking for directions it should guess (with a degree of accuracy) where I might want to go to.
- Expandable screen. I want an iPad sized screen, but I want it to fit in my pocket. The only way to do that is to have an expandable or pull-out screen of some sort, or perhaps a projector.
- Keyboard. Something real that I can type on — keyboards are SO amazingly effective. But I don’t like carrying around a bluetooth keyboard (they’re either too small to type on or too big to carry comfortably).